Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is a treaty establishing the International Criminal Court which develop out of a conference in Rome (July 17th 1998). The Statute commenced enforcement on July 1st 2002. Currently there are over 120 States are party to the Statute.
Four main international crimes covered in the Statute. These are: (i) Crimes against Humanity, (ii) War Crimes, (iii) Genocide and the (iv) Crime of Aggression. The Crime of Aggression is still under development. And under the Statute the ICC has power to investigate and prosecute the four crimes mention above where States who are party to the Statute are “unable” or “unwilling” to conduct same themselves.
ICC only has jurisdiction over crimes if they are executed in the country or territory that is party to the treaty or if the perpetrator is a national of a State that is party to the treaty. Also it may be that the ICC will have jurisdiction over such crimes elsewhere if the United Nations Security Council authorises it.
States commonly identified as to have not signed up and/or ratified the treaty are: China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, United States and Yemen. See map along with the key details below: